Cold drawing machine is used to cold form a tube or rod into a desired shape. This process is more precise than hot extrusion. This method also allows less expensive materials to be used that meet strength requirements. It may be necessary to perform multiple passes through the die in order to manipulate the steel bar into the required shape. In addition, the bar can be annealed to further soften it before or after the drawing process.
The process of drawing begins with procuring the raw steel. This is done through a purchase order that specifies the material’s chemistry, dimensions and tolerances. It also should specify a target final size, wall thickness and concentricity. Drawing is typically performed on carbon and low-alloy steel, copper and nickel alloys and titanium and zirconium alloys. It may be performed on either welded or seamless tubing.
During the drawing process, raw steel is submerged in lubricant. This is to ensure that the metal can be drawn through the die with ease. It is common for the steel to require several passes through the die in order to achieve the desired length and width. The lead ends of the steel must be smaller than the rest of the rod in order for it to fit through the die. This is accomplished by reducing their diameter, which in turn helps to reduce the friction between the metal and the die.
As the steel is pulled through the die, it must be reworked in order to continue drawing. This can be achieved through the use of a straight pull draw bench or a chain drive. It is possible to perform multiple steps in the same machine, and it is possible to use a tracker for more precise control of the rod or tube.
The results of the calculations indicate that the energy-power parameters of the drawing process depend on technological factors, such as the mechanical properties of the material, its tendency to harden during deformation, the contact area and the friction coefficient between the steel-die interface and the technological lubricant. It is important to accurately determine these parameters in order to design an efficient drawing route and ensure that the drawn product meets its specifications. The effect of the die half-angle and the friction coefficient on these parameters is also significant, and it is recommended to perform a full-scale experimental study for this purpose. This will help to confirm the accuracy of the calculation methods. This will also allow a better understanding of the effects that these factors can have on the quality of the product. These results will provide a more accurate basis for the selection of suitable drawing equipment.